Deep Gluteal Syndrome
References for special tests
1. Freiberg AH, Vinke TH. Sciatica and the sacro-iliac joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1934;16:126-136.
2. Pace JB, Nagle D. Piriform Syndrome. West J Med. 1976;124:433-439.
3. Solheim LF, Siewers P, Paus B. The Piriformis Muscle Syndrome: Sciatic Nerve Entrapment Treated with Section of the Piriformis Muscle. Acta Orthop Scand. 1981;52:73-75.
4. Beatty RA. The Piriformis Muscle Syndrome: A Simple Diagnostic Maneuver. Neurosurgery. 1994;34:512-513.
5. Michel F, Decavel P, Toussirot E et al. Piriformis muscle syndrome: diagnostic criteria and treatment of a monocentric series of 250 patients. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2013;56:371-383.
6. Martin HD, Kivlan BR, Palmer IJ, Martin RL. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests for sciatic nerve entrapment in the gluteal region. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2014;22:882-888.
Probably the first description of the piriformis syndrome
Freiberg AH. Sciatic pain and its relief by operations on muscle and fascia. Arch Surg. 1937;34:337-350.
A systematic review of the clinical features of the piriformis syndrome (also comments on prevalence)
Hopayian K, Danielyan A. Four symptoms define the piriformis syndrome: an updated systematic review of its clinical features. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2018;28:155-164.
Trials of injection therapy
Childers MK, Wilson DJ, Gnatz SM, Conway RR, Sherman AK. Botulinum toxin type A use in piriformis muscle syndrome: a pilot study. American Journal of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation. 2002;81:751-759.
Fishman LM, Anderson C, Rosner B. BOTOX and physical therapy in the treatment of piriformis syndrome. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;81:936-942
Naja Z, Al-Tannir M, El-Rajab M et al. The effectiveness of clonidine-bupivacaine repeated nerve stimulator-guided injection in piriformis syndrome. Clin J Pain. 2009;25:199-205.
Fishman LM, Wilkins AN, Rosner B. Electrophysiologically identified piriformis syndrome is successfully treated with incobotulinum toxin a and physical therapy. Muscle & nerve. 2017;56:258-263
A traditional review of deep gluteal syndrome for an overview
Carro LP, Hernando MF, Cerezal L, Navarro IS, Fernandez AA, Castillo AO. Deep gluteal space problems: piriformis syndrome, ischiofemoral impingement and sciatic nerve release. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 2016;6:384-396.